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YOUTH MIGRATION PHENOMENON: STRATEGY BETWEEN REDUCING POVERTY AND SYMPTOMS BRAIN DRAIN FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

By 21.58.00

M. Lutfi Chakim

History always shows that the development of human civilization in this world is influenced by several important factors and among these is through the movement of the man himself from one place to another place, or better known by the term migration. Traditionally, this phenomenon confirms natural formula that basically man is "gay migration" or a dynamic creature, likes to move freely or to move to find something new in life activity.  The move is part of the process of adaptation with social environment, economy, culture and ecology. Therefore, the mobility of people in his form rarely reflects various adaptations in the sense that simple.

Professor Stephen Castles (2007) from Oxford University, Britain declared that we are now entering 'the age of migration' or the era of inter-state migration. This phenomenon has been triggered by the swift currents of globalization that mediates movement of people, such as cheapening the cost of transportation, the more sophisticated capital increasingly rampant activities of transportation and international trade (Castles 2007).

Actually, many factors have influenced young people in the process of this migration, the main reason young people leave the country is to get a better education, in addition to economic factors, socio-cultural factors, and political stability factors may also influence young people to migrate. Meanwhile, according to Lee (1976) in Parnwell (1993), urge people to move to other countries is caused by an imbalance in socio-economic factors. This theory is called the theory of push-pull factor.  Lee further indicated that four factors be the cause of why people migrate, the factor that does not exist in the country of origin, the factors contained in the destination country, the obstacles that inhibit as well as personal factors.
In general, youth migration to go abroad or on international migration is closely related with economic growth and demographic transition in a State. Where the State's economy is still relatively underdeveloped and population growth is still high excess labor generally can not absorbed by activity  economy at home. Therefore, these facts which became one of the alternative youth migration in the solution of labor problems in addition to factor income from the State foreign exchange activity migration into these overseas.

Risk Versus Benefit Migration

When talking about the benefits versus the risks faced by a State when the phenomenon of youth migration occurs. As we know that, migration can be beneficial because it can be considered as an alternative implementation strategies to reduce poverty, there is a close connection between migration and poverty. Migration can be considered as an alternative strategy to climb out of poverty. Migration, with the revenues gained from it, also have contributed to the alleviation of poverty, at least in the place of origin of migrants. Temporary migration is considered as one way to maximize family income and minimize risks (Stark, 1991). Youth migration seems to increase and there is an opportunity to use this strategy to help combat poverty.
While the risk or the greatest threat to the phenomenon of youth migration from a country that has not been or are in the stage of development is the emergence of symptoms of brain drain. Symptoms of brain drain is a country run out of experts to take care of their own country because the people who are able to choose to leave their own country. Who live in are the ones who failed in the selection. If a youth migration phenomenon is not observed in a serious and then addressed properly could result from the brain drain can we expect the impact from now. Quite reasonable if a youth migration out of a State is seen as a potential work force reduction of development for the State. The process of brain drain can disrupt and slow the process of regional development.

Brain drain is not only a scarcity of labor force raises issues of development, but also can disrupt a country's economic growth. And lately more and more young people are professionals (those highly educated, talented and trained) the best of developing countries migrate or leave the country is poor to rich countries (industrialized countries) such as the United States, United Kingdom , Canada, and Australia.  They are the scientists, information (ICT experts), architects, engineers, academia, physicians, and other experts. Brain drain where the event is a great loss for the country abandoned.
Since one of the factors that determine the progress a country is the availability of qualified human resources is needed for many areas both in state institutions, governments, corporations, educational sector, health, NGOs or the media. Availability of qualified human resources is not out of the presence of a quality education sector. Countries that do not have natural resources, but has quality human resources from various areas of knowledge developing very fast compared with the abundant natural resources but low-quality human resources.

Indeed, we all know that events of this brain drain brings huge negative effects, especially for country of origin. However, there was also a positive effect generated by the events of this brain drain, although not as big as the resulting negative effects.

a. The negative impact of brain drain events.

The negative impact of events arising in the presence of brain drain are:
1. brain drain will weaken the structure of employment, where it was a major factor inhibiting the industry to move forward. So that economic development was not developing the country of origin,
2. More and declining labor productivity that live in the country of origin and other production factors due to the strong complementary relationship,
3. Brain drain is a big loss in human capital. Moreover, generally accepted in foreign countries is a quality resource. While the benefits of brain drain of highly educated for the country that left very limited. While enjoying high salaries, they are usually minimal once sent money to his native country than the less educated emigrants. Their ties with their countries are also relaxed,
4. the best people who migrated to foreign countries will surely be replaced by expatriates (with the same capabilities), which generally charge many times more expensive. What followed was the inefficiency of the domestic economy,
5. The occurrence of brain drain for the country of origin would carry negative implications of not a few, such as the condition in which the shortage of trained and educated from a country, as well as the imbalance of economic growth that are difficult to predict. In addition, the brain drain can also bring low welfare effects on the environment, where educated workers are coming from.

b. The positive impact arising from the events of brain drain.

On the other hand, some developing countries have now been able to take advantage of the brain drain be reversed brain drain to the progress of his country, such as China and India, two "Asian tiger" which has a very high concentration of brain drain. Brain drain also creates a positive impact, namely:
1. Country of origin may also have the results of research conducted overseas migrants, such as drugs for tropical areas, agricultural research etc,
2. Alternative sources of investment,
3. Decrease in unemployment rate,
4. The reverse flow of migrants who settled temporarily in foreign countries by bringing additional knowledge and skills.

The high rate of flow of experts from developing countries to more developed countries (brain drain) is one reason that shows weaker and less precise policy strategy and vision in growing realm of science and technology in a fair and adequate and policies that are less supportive of experts. With the negative effects of brain drain in the above events, the need for efforts by developing countries to overcome these problems. So the brain drain current is expected to be reduced to a minimum.

Actions That Can be Recommended
To anticipate the phenomenon of youth migration which then caused the impact of brain drain phenomenon, a number of steps can be prepared.

First, an absolute step is education is fundamental, the government must improve the quality of education in developing countries so that comparisons with education in developed countries are no longer relevant. Improved quality of education should start from primary to university.
Second, the government speed up development so that people in developing countries move into a modern society that requires a lot of experts. The availability of ample job opportunities to restrict movement into and out of developed countries.

Third, wage/salary equated, there is no discrimination. Ie by building a fair remuneration system. The most simple and concrete examples, to a certain position with duties and responsibilities of certain, no longer have differentiated between salary (local professionals) with a salary of expatriates who are usually paid much more expensive. Because with a good remuneration system, according to various studies, also proved able to promote morale, boost productivity, and whipped up the creativity of employees at all levels of the organization.

Fourth, the government's readiness to accommodate them in all fields. Namely by setting up facilities and infrastructure and facilities that are needed by the experts. The government should provide employment opportunities in all fields, so that knowledge and skills they acquire can be implemented in their own country and not in vain. So they will not think to flee abroad.
Conclusion

Many of the factors that have affected young people in the process of migration, there are some benefits and risks to be borne by the phenomenon of youth migration, the benefits of a strategy to reduce poverty and the threat or risk is there are symptoms of brain drain for developing countries.
With the negative impacts arising from events over the brain drain, governments in developing countries need to implement the above efforts to prevent and cope with the emergence of the negative effects of brain drain. Thus the authors recommend steps, that is, from the improvement of education is fundamental, development, wage / salary equated so there is no discrimination, and the government is required to prepare the facilities and infrastructure and facilities that are needed by our experts.

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